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Fig. 3. Neoadjuvant photodynamic therapy (PDT) for locally advanced hilar bile duct cancer. (A) Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography shows tumors involving the confluence and both the right and left hepatic ducts (arrows). (B, C) Percutaneous cholangioscopy reveals a large papillary tumor in the second branch of the left intrahepatic duct and superficial mucosal nodularity in the proximal part of the right hepatic duct and main duct. (D) Endoscopic evaluation of the effects of PDT at 1 month after treatment in the right hepatic duct. Cholangioscopy shows no viable tumor and only a necrotic surface in the right proximal duct.
Int J Gastrointest Interv 2021;10:96~100 https://doi.org/10.18528/ijgii210032
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